91.305 MIDTERM NOTES YOU CAN BRING ALL DATA SHEETS! IN FACT, DEFINITELY BRING THEM UNLESS YOU HAVE A PHOTOGRAPHIC MEMORY. 1 PAGE OF PERSONALLY PREPARED NOTES (BOTH SIDES) MAY ALSO BE BROUGHT. THESE ARE TO BE TURNED IN WITH EXAM (YOU WILL GET BACK). V= IR (calculating voltage, current, and resistance given 2 of 3) NPN transistor circuits (models of current flow, BE current x beta (gain) yields CE current) electrical properties of digital logic (input current, output current, valid voltages, being able to read this from data sheets, source vs. sink) universality of NAND and NOR (being able to build other gates from either of these two) DeMorgan's Laws (various forms of same idea) typical logical elements (what they are, what you can do with them): and/or/xor/not/ etc basic gates S-R latches (built with NOR) flip-flops (JK and D, edge triggered) decoders (e.g., HC138) counters (e.g., HC393) registers (e.g., HC574) STATE MACHINES: understanding and creating state transition diagram assignment of unique #s to different states indicating transition conditions creating state transition table from diagram creating logic equations from table minimizing equations implementing equations with gates and HC574 latch FREQUENCY/PERIOD order-of-magnitute "everyday" examples of each of these 1 ns (nanosecond, 10^-9 sec) -> 1 GHz (gigahertz, 10^9 cycles/sec or Hz) --> simple HC gate delays 1 us (microsec, 10^-6 sec) -> 1 MHz (megahertz, 10^6 Hz) --> 68HC11 E clock rate 1 ms (millisec, 10^-3 sec) -> 1 kHz (kilohertz, 10^3 Hz) --> audio frequencies HC11 register model (set of internal registers) memory map (16 addr bits -> 65535 aka 64K of addr space, 0x0000-0x01ff is RAM, 0x1000-103F is ctrl register bank, stack builds downward in memory, program execution moves upwards) control registers addressing modes (inherent, immediate, direct (zero page, 1 byte) extended (whole 64k range, 2 bytes) , indexed) status reg/condition codes and branching subroutines/use of stack single-chip mode vs. expanded-mode branch (bsr -> 1-byte relative offset) vs. jmp (16-bit absolute value)