You are required to connect your work with existing work in the field.

Finding related work

To find related work, use keyword searches on Google Scholar to search for articles. The URL is

If this provides a link to an article in the ACM Digital Library (, or IEEE Xplore (, UMass Lowell has purchased access to all of these publications.

E.g., for the ACM Digital Library, use this URL:

and the IEEE Digital Library is here:

Use these base URLs to convert URLs you get from Google Scholar to ones that for which you have access using UMass Lowell's Libraries. If off campus, you will be prompted to log in using your address.

E.g., this URL


and then you have access to the work.

This trick works for many publishers' sites. Also, you can log in and do searches there, including registering for Interlibrary Loan (Illiad), which lets you request articles that UMass Lowell isn't presently licensing.

You should have five to eight citations. Copy the citation format in the SIGCHI template.

Integrating related work discussion into your paper

You cannot just list a bunch of related articles in your References section.

For each cited source, you must specifically identify its connection to what you are doing. Summarize the article's relevance to your work in your narrative.

  • To quote from another author, you put the verbatim text in quotation marks, and you cite the source in place.
  • If you paraphrase another author's work, you also immediately (in place) give the citation for these ideas.

Most people know that verbatim copying requires citation. But so too does paraphrasing [re-wording] another's ideas!

The whole point of citing is to give credit where credit is due. If someone has explained an idea really well, and you want to include their thoughts, that's totally fine! Just cite it as being theirs. And then choose to include verbatim, quoted material or a paraphrase of what they said.

An Example

Here is an example of a passage that properly cites others’ ideas.

There is much evidence that there is a need for greater high-tech skills in today’s workforce (e.g., [4]). There is substantial under-representation by women and ethnic minorities in technical fields, including computer science [2]. This is a matter of social justice and international competitiveness [3]. Addressing this, since 1999 NSF has spearheaded a series of funding programs to “broaden participation in computing” and other STEM fields [1]. Most recently, the White House announced Computer Science For All, which strives to “empower a generation of American students with the computer science skills they need to thrive in a digital economy” [5].

Notice that each statement/idea is attributed to the respective author(s). Sometimes their point is summarized, and other times it's presented verbatim with quotes. But in both cases, the paragraph builds its argument based on the work of others.

Then, in the bibliography, the full reference for each cited work is given. E.g.:

[1] Aspray, W. (2016). Opening Computing Careers to Underrepresented Groups. In Participation in Computing (pp. 13-52). Springer International Publishing.
[2] Jackson, D. L., Starobin, S. S., & Laanan, F. S. (2013). The shared experiences: Facilitating successful transfer of women and underrepresented minorities in STEM fields. New Directions for Higher Education, 2013(162), 69-76.
[3] Leggon, C., McNeely, C. L., & Yoon, J. (2015). Advancing Women in Science: Policies for Progress. In Advancing Women in Science (pp. 307-340). Springer International Publishing.
[4] Olson, S., & Riordan, D. G. (2012). Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional College Graduates with Degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Report to the President. Executive Office of the President.
[5] Smith, M. (2016). Computer Science For All. Accessed December 9, 2018.

The references section is sorted alphabetically by first author's last name, and numbered sequentially.

Each work cited in the references section must be cited in the text. You can't just pad the references section with related work. Anything listed must be discussed specifically in the paper.

(The example above is my own writing.)


In papers submitted for publication, you cannot reproduce diagrams from others' work unless you have explicit permission from the publication journal or if you can pass the four-factor test for fair use. If you ask for permission, there is often a fee that must be paid to license such use.

In papers submitted in this class, it is allowable to include diagrams borrowed from others work, given the following is satisfied:

  1. You must provide that a full citation to the source of the diagram in your References section
  2. Include verbatim statement, next to the diagram, “From from <insert author(s) name and publication year>. Reproduced without permission.”

Alternatively, you may redraw diagrams you found elsewhere provided that you give credit. In this case (for a redrawn image), you would (1) provide the full citation in your References section, and then (2) next to the drawing, include the verbatim statement “Adapted from <insert author(s) name and publication year>.”