Fred's notes

pp 7 -- hardest part is changing the problem :-) (Jones, bottom pp)

pp 9 -- "invention comes before theory" (Pye, 1978); technology leads to science

pp 10 -- "commodities are good for thinking"

ill-defined, "wicked" problems

pp 11 -- bruner vs. piaget -- bruner as cognitive devt as "continuous process of interaction between different modes of cognition, all of which can be developed to high levels" !!!

Ferguson -- mind's eye (1977)

pp 17 -- marples "the nature of the problem can only be found by examining it through proposed solutions" and use 2 radically diff ones.

akin 1979, "unique aspects of design behavior is the constant generation of new task goals and redefinition of task constraints."

pp 18 -- rowe 1987, designers don't like to throw away initial ideas, even if they cause lots of problems!

or, waldron & waldron, they do throw away initial "fallacious" ideas, which helped get started.

"solution-focusing" vs "problem-focusing"

pp 19, March 1976, "a scientific hypothesis is not the same thing as a design hypothesis"

pp 26, about open university: accessible, ubiquitous, continuous, explicit.

breadth-first (experts) vs. depth first (novices)

doug -- smith, fink, and ward -- creativity