WED MAY 5
&bull assignment 9: cache memory pdf
due Wed May 12
&bull microprocessor design article pdf
WED APR 14
&bull archlab part B practice html
FRI APR 2
• assignment 8: archlab parts A and B
due Mon Apr 12
sum.ys starter file
for Mon Apr 12: Part A, sum.ys and rsum.ys only
FRI MAR 26
• assignment 7: bomblab
pdf due Fri Apr 2
BOMBLAB README txt
gdb notes pdf
FRI MAR 12
• assignment 6 answers out
• mid-term review txt
WED MAR 10
• assignment 4 handed back w/answers
MON MAR 1
• assignment 6: memory-mapping and the stack pdf due Mar 10
• appendix b pdf
• cy6264 pdf
• expanddemo.s s
• mystery5000.rel rel
NOTE: THERE IS NO ASSIGNMENT 5.
FRI FEB 20
• assignment 4: the HC11 pdf
due Feb 27
• java setup html
• README FIRST!
• intro to 6811 pdf
• m68hc11e manual pdf
• the above files in a zip
THU FEB 19
• assignment 2 answers out
WED FEB 11
• assignment 3b: transistor ckts html
due Feb 18
MON FEB 9
• sch draw hints pdf
• volt div, trans reading no link
• assignment 3: state machines pdf
due Feb 18
FRI FEB 6
univ closed class canceled
WED FEB 4
• uml305dev manual pdf
• uml305dev checkout pdf
• datasheets html
MON FEB 2
• labkits distributed
• assignment 2: transistors, gates, & mystery chips pdf
due Feb 9
• Horowitz/Hill logic implementations no link
WED JAN 28
• assignment 1: historic computer html
due Jan 30
91.305 Computer Architecture Spring 2004
Prof. Fred G. Martin
Olsen 208 (office) x1964
Olsen 306 (lab) x2705
Karthik Ramanathan, kramanat at-sign cs dot uml
MWF, 10:30 11:20 am, OS 414
Monday 3:30 4:30 pm, OS 306 (Martin)
Wednesday 1:00 3:00 pm, OS 208 (Martin)
Thursday 2:30 4:30 pm, OS 306 (Ramanathan)
The class will use the ikonboard system for web-based
threaded discussions of lectures, assignments, and other
course-related material. All students are expected to create an
account for themselves on the discussion board, and use it when
appropriate. Before sending me an email, please consider
posting your question to the discussion board. Private/personal
matters (e.g., academic standing in the class) should be addressed to me.
Look for the link to the course board at the top of any course web
page, in the pink resources menu.
Systems: A Programmers Perspective, (C) 2003 by Randal E. Bryant
and David R. OHallaron, ISBN 013034074X,
The books web site on the
publishers page is http://vig.prenhall.com/catalog/academic/product/0,4096,013034074X,00.html.
The authors site is http://csapp.cs.cmu.edu/.
This is a new textbook and takes a practical, hands-on approach to
the subject matter. In addition to learning particular topics in the
course (e.g., cache memory), you will learn how to write better code
to exploit this knowledge.
I will hand out additional material in class (which will also be
posted to the course web site).
An examination of the basic functional components of a computer
system including the CPU, memory systems, and I/O systems. Each of
these three areas will be developed in detail with a focus on the
system design and component integration. Topics will include CPU
control and ALU operation, computer timing, data address and I/O bus
activity, addressing model, programmed and DMA I/O, and instruction
sets and microcode.
From the UML CS brochure:
Now, my words. We will learn the structure of computers and how they
work. Well study computers as layered systems, like a Russian
nesting doll. From the inside of the doll (lowest level) moving
outward, heres one way to describe the layers:
0. semiconductor physicselectron flow; how transistors work
1. transistors as switches / logic gates / boolean operationsfor
our purposes, the most primitive element of a computational system
2. adders / math units / mutiplexers / decodersthe stuff you can
build with gates, which become the building blocks of the CPU (central
3. CPUthe heart of the computer. Its implemented by
whats called the microarchitecture level. Its
external interfacethe way you experience it as a
programmeris called the instruction set
archictecture or machine language.
4. memory, peripherals [input/output], and the other doo-dads the CPU
talks tologically, this isnt actually above the CPU, but
rather along side it
5. compilerssoftware that takes higher level code written by
people and generates machine code to run on the CPU. The compiler
matters because (1) if youre writing a compiler, you need to
intimately understand the CPU to do a proper job, and more commonly
(2) if youre using a compiler [who doesnt?] you need to
understand how it works to write decent code.
6. operating systemin a sense the most important program the CPU
will run. The OS doesnt do useful work by itself, but it
implements a rich set of services that application programmers
In this class, we wont worry about my level 0, and
we probably wont get to anything too important in level
6. For level 0, see 16.423/16.523 Intro to
Solid-State Physical Electronics; for level 6, see 91.308,
Introduction to Operating Systems !
Broadly, the class has four sections:
- First section: We will examine digital systems, including gates,
latches, counters, adders, multiplexers, and combinational logic. The
highlight of this section is the finite state machine, which is the
controller core of any CPU (as well as being relevant to some software
designs). Each students will be given a personal lab kit (see below);
we will build circuits to explore and demonstrate the class
material (3 weeks).
- Second section: We will learn the instruction set architecture of a
simple 8bit microprocessor (the Motorola 68HC11), wire it up,
and program it to perform a number of tasks. Topics include
instruction set design, CPU registers, memory mapping and address
decoding, timing and cycle-counting, analog-to-digital conversion,
ASCII and the serial line (2 weeks).
- Third section: We will study the internal design of the
Y86 a version of the Intel IA32 (Pentium) processor that
has been simplified for pedagogical purposes. We will use HCL
(hardware control language) with a simulator to implement and improve
the Y86 design, learning about registers, pipelining, instruction
decoding, other aspects of processor design, and memory design. This
is the core of the class. (4 weeks, based on Chapters 4 and 6 of the
- Fourth section: Practical approaches based on this knowledge,
including how to design algorithms that take into account cache memory
configurations, and how C-compilers translate into machine code. (4
weeks, based on Chapters 3 and 5 of Bryant/OHallaron.)
Each student will be provided with a lab kit for use in the first two
sections of the class. Most work using the kit will be able to be
done at home (with your own PC). Some assignments may require the use
of computers or other resources located on campus.
The kit must be returned in the same condition it was provided to
you (or better). Students who fail to return the kit will not be
awarded a grade in the class. The replacement cost (if the kit is
lost) is $100.
Assuming you complete all of the homework assignments, your grade in
the class is calculated primarily from your performance on exams:
mid-term exam, 30%
final exam, 50%
in-class participation, 10%
homework assignments, 10% see below.
Homework assignments are the core of the class. It is where I expect,
for most students, the most important learning will take place.
The key to success in this class is the following:
- Even though they do not count substantially toward your grade,
all homework assignments must exhibit significant effort and thought.
- Homework that is obviously prepared without effort
(lame), or is too late (see below), will be counted as
- After two missing homeworks, each subsequent missing homework
will cost you a half-letter grade in the class.
In other words:
1 or 2 missing/lame homeworks no penalty.
3 missing homeworks half-letter grade reduction (A becomes an AB,
AB becomes a B, etc.)
4 missing homeworks one-letter grade reduction (A becomes B,
5 missing homeworks 1.5-letter grade reduction (A becomes BC,
10 missing homeworks 4-letter grade reduction (A becomes F, a.k.a.
Here is the reason for this policy. The homework is the place to
learn. So I dont want to penalize you if you didnt
understand something on the assignment. Hence, the grades on your
homeworks are only worth 10% of your overall grade. When you get your
corrected assignments back, check to make sure you understood the
material, or come see me or the TA to ask questions and debug your
On the other hand, I expect you to make an honest effort in the
classnot to skate by, cram, and hope for a passing grade on the two
exams. If you are not willing to take the class seriously and do the
work, you should drop the class, because (with this policy) its
pretty hard to pass otherwise.
Finally, at the end of the day, if you understand what happened in
each homework assignment, you should do fine on the exams! I am not
going to surprise you with material on the exams that had nothing to
do with the homework. Quite the opposite: the exams will be based
specifically on the material on the assignments.
- There will be approximately one homework assignment per week. You
should budget 4 8 hours per week to do the assignments.
- We will make every effort to return corrected homework to you,
with an answer key as appropriate, within one week of its due date.
- Late homework will not be corrected. This is a practical matter of
respect to the professor and TA, who are responsible for timely and
thoughtful treatment of a significant number of students homework.
- If late homework is turned in before answers are handed out,
though, it will be counted as being done. This gives you a
non-deterministic period typically no longer than a week to get late
homework in. Dont push it.
- As discussed, homework grades are not counted significantly
toward your course grade.
- Exceptions will only be made for serious personal situations.
Short form: I encourage you to study groups and work with each other,
but all prepared work you turn in must be your own. Do NOT copy
code, solutions, or other text from your study partners or anyone
Long form: In professional as well as academic life outside the
classroom, people seldom work completely on their own. They typically
work in teams and help each other extensively. I have no objection to
you getting help from me or your fellow students. I encourage you to
do so. However,
prepared work in this course is to be each students own.
Students should therefore be familiar with the Universitys
definitions and policies on academic dishonesty, found in the
University course catalog. [above adapted from Prof. Jesse
Heines copying policy]
The contributions of others to your thinking must be acknowledged
in all work you turn in. As UML Prof. Sarah Kuhn says, Using
works of others, or drawing extensively on their ideas, without
clearly stating that they are not your work (by using quotation marks,
and references to the cited work) is plagiarism, a very serious
academic offense. [Prof. Sarah Kuhn, syllabus for 65.790,
from Prof. Marian Williams 91.531 course syllabus.] With each
assignment, you must mention people whom you worked with, who you have
helped, or who have helped you.
Students enrolled in the honors program will be expected to do an
exemplary job with all coursework. Additionally, a term paper or term
project will be required. A due date will be set in early May.
Please schedule a meeting with Prof. Martin to plan the project by
Monday, 05-Apr-2004 11:31:34 EDT